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Spherification Overview

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The spherification technique was introduced by el Bulli in 2003. It consists of a controlled jellification of a liquid which forms spheres when submerged in a bath. The spheres can be made of different sizes and have been given names like caviar when they are small, eggs, gnocchi and ravioli when they have larger size. The resulting spheres have a thin membrane and are filled with the flavored liquid. A slight pressure of the mouth on the sphere makes it burst and release an amazing explosion of flavor. The spheres are flexible and can be carefully manipulated. It is possible to introduce solid elements in the sphere which will remain in suspension in the liquid giving the possibility of introducing multiple flavors and textures in one preparation. (see spherification recipes).

Carbonated Mojito Spheres 720












It sounds complicated but the spherification technique can be easily mastered at home with one of our Molecular Gastronomy kits and the detailed instructions on our website. The Molecular Gastronomy Essentials Kit has all the ingredients and tools necessary to make any type of sphere. If you are also interested in exploring other techniques, you may want to consider the Molecular Gastronomy Premium Kit or the Molecular Gastronomy Ultimate Kit.

There are two main kinds of spherification techniques and each of them has its advantages and disadvantages which make them more suitable for certain recipes. The Basic Spherification technique consists of submerging a liquid with sodium alginate in a bath of calcium. The Reverse Spherification technique consists of submerging a liquid with calcium content in a bath of sodium alginate. When the liquid drops into the bath, a thin coat of gel forms around the droplet as the calcium reacts with the sodium alginate.

There are also a couple of other techniques to create spheres which consist of instant jelling by immersing the liquid in cold oil or liquid nitrogen, but these are made with a completely different process and the resulting spheres are solid and have no liquid inside. So these are usually not considered "spherification" techniques.

Basic Spherification

The Basic Spherification technique is ideal for obtaining spheres with a very, very thin membrane that is almost imperceptible in your mouth. It results in a sphere that easily explodes in your mouth as if there is no solid substance between your palate and the liquid. The main problem of this technique is that once the sphere is removed from the calcium bath, the process of jellification continues even after rinsing the sphere with water. This means that the spheres need to be served immediately or they would convert into a compact gel ball with no magical liquid inside. The other issue of this technique is that jellification does not occur if the liquid acidity is high (PH<3.6) but this can be corrected by adding sodium citrate to the liquid to reduce the acidity level before the spherification process. The Basic Spherification technique doesn't work with ingredients that have high calcium content Examples of Basic Spherification are "Spherical Mango Ravioli" , "Liquid Pea Ravioli", "Caviar of Cointreau" (shown below). Learn more about Basic Spherification.

Basic Spherification

Reverse Spherification

The technique of Reverse Spherification is much more versatile than Basic Spherification as it can make spheres with almost any product. It is best for liquids with high calcium content or alcohol content. Contrary to the spheres made with the Basic Spherification process, these spheres have a thicker membrane and are long-lasting as the process of jellification can be stopped when the sphere is removed from the sodium alginate bath and rinsed with water. Thanks to these characteristics, the Reverse Spherification spheres can be manipulated more easily and can be used in more ways (for example as fillings in sponge cakes or mousses, in cocktails or can even be macerated in aromatized olive oil for a few days). Examples of Reverse Spherification are "Yoghurt Spheres", "Liquid Mozzarella Spheres" and "Spherical Olives" (shown below). Learn more about Reverse Spherification.

Reverse Spherification

The Science of Spherification

Sodium Alginate is a natural polysaccharide product extracted from brown seaweed that grows in cold water regions. In presence of calcium, sodium alginate forms a gel without the need of heat.

In Basic Spherification, the gelling occurs thanks to the diffusion method in which the crosslinking calcium ion diffuses from an outer reservoir into an alginate solution. Gels form when a calcium salt is added to a solution of sodium alginate in water. The gel forms by chemical reaction, the calcium displaces the sodium from the alginate, holds the long alginate molecules together and a gel is the result. No heat is required and the gels do not melt when heated. The gel coating is formed inside the droplet. Because the calcium ions continue diffusing towards the center of the droplet even after removing the sphere from the calcium bath, the gelification process continues and will eventually form a solid gel sphere.

In Reverse Spherification, the calcium ions diffuse from the droplet into the alginate bath, forming a gel coat outside the droplet of flavored liquid. Because the calcium ions are diffusing from the inside out and no alginate molecules are getting into the droplet, the gelification process stops as soon as the spheres are removed from the alginate bath. This allows you to store the spheres for later use.

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  • Massimobuono

    io ci sto provando con un ottimo risultato!

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  • SFeater

    How long do the reverse spheres last?

    • QuantumChef

      A few days if you keep them in a liquid bath in the fridge.

  • Fred Wang     Mr- fred  

  • ChefDamien

    Hey chef, im culinary arts student who is very passionate about gastronomy. I have been trying out various recipes for the last year. i did a watermelon spherification and it worked perfectly, but the juice tasted chalky from the sodium. What to you recommend to get this bad taste to go away?

    • QuantumChef

      Use reverse spherification with calcium lactate gluconate which doesn’t affect the flavor and texture as much. Unfortunately you won’t be able to make caviar with it but you can make larger spheres.

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  • Aliona Leonowa-Wendrowska

    Fabulous! I will definitely try reverse spherification

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  • Meredithsheffield

    i am in 7th grade and i am doing an experiment/project on spherification. i was wondering what amount of sodium alginate and calcium chloride i would use. also, am i supposed to mix the sodium alginate with my liquid, how much to mix with the liquid, and how to determine if the liquids pH is less then five. plus is there anything else you could use besides sodium citrate to decrease the acticity?

    • QuantumChef

      To measure PH you can use PH strips like these
      Sodium citrate is one of the best alternatives to prevent modifying the flavor too much.
      Use 0.5% for the alginate bath and 1% of calcium lactate gluconate with your ingredient.
      Good luck!

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  • andybm

    can Calcium Lactate be used instead of Calcium Chloride for spherification and reverse spherification?

    • QuantumChef

      Yes, just use double the amount as I replied to your other comment. Bests!

  • molecularman

    how long does the basic spherification last

    • QuantumChef

      For optimal results I would recommend to consume the spheres made with basic spherification within 15 minutes.

      • molecularman


  • molecularman

    i am in yeah 7 and i am doing a personal project my chosen topic is molecular gastromey and what spherification would last the longest becuase i need to store it for a bit thanks

  • molecularman

    i want to get the a the essentials kit how long would it take to get to australia

    • QuantumChef

      With Express service it is just a few days, usually within 5.

      • molecularman

        thank you very much

  • Rosey

    I was in Spain recently and had lime juce caviar. How would you spherify something with such a low ph?

  • molecularman

    how long will the spherification mixture last if i put it in the fridge in a syringe thanks please answer quickly

    • QuantumChef

      It depends on the flavored ingredient you are using but generally speaking a day or two in the fridge should be fine.

  • Frank

    Can you freeze these sphrese, lime juce caviar, and after defrost, will they break and cry or they will go back to the original caviar form?

  • molecularman

    will the sphereification last longer in water or exposed in a container

    • QuantumChef

      You mean to store the spheres once they are made? You should always store them in a bath of the same juice you used to create them.

      • molecularman

        yeah but if i only had access to water or a container which would be better

  • molecularman

    but what if i only have water or a container

  • Giorgio Motta

    HI, i never ever have played with molecular cuisine before. getting any of the kits will help me to get started or do i need to get help somewhere else first?

  • karthic

    hey there is that possible way to serve this reverse spherification in a hot temp not more that 70′c with a thick liquid consider a strained brown sauce or it does only work with clear Liquids?

    • QuantumChef

      Yes, you can do this! Just warm the spheres in the sauce or water bath.

  • JMLee

    Hi. I want to make big wobbly spheres of water.. should I use reverse spherification or basic spherification?
    I am using this for my school festival in Korea. I am looking forward to presenting these spheres of water in front of everyone, but I haven’t much time.. I would be really grateful if you can reply asap, thanks! :)

    • QuantumChef

      Reverse spherification is better and more flexible for this application.

  • Sandeep

    I have a thick emulsion with finely ground coconut and it has some traces of oil. Can specification be applied to this? Please advice

    • QuantumChef

      Yes, should work.

  • Melissa

    I want to make pineaple pearls for a class project and I was wondering what is the correct amount of sodium alginate along with the quantity of water. Also, what should the amount of calcium lactate is needed in the pineaple mixture?

  • Rick

    Can you freeze your leftover Alginate Bath, to reuse for a later date? Thank You.

    • QuantumChef

      No idea, never tried it, sorry!

      • Rick

        How long will an alginate bath effectively last in the refrigerator? Thank you.

        • QuantumChef

          A couple of days should be no problem.

  • Huron Blackheart

    Will the juice dissipate on contact with baTH if it is too acidic?

    • QuantumChef

      With basic spherification yes, with reverse it shouldn’t matter.

  • Esme Barnett

    Thank you for the valuable information. Esme

  • Kd_t

    Why can I only read the first lesson? It always give me 404 error message

  • Selin Sonmez

    How long do reverse spheres last once they are served on a plate (meaning how long can they stay outside without being in a liquid)?

    • QuantumChef

      You just don’t want them to dry. I would say a couple of hours.

  • blah

    Could you make water spheres?

    • QuantumChef

      Yes, no problem.

  • JEFF

    My name is Jeff

  • JEFF

    Does it make little balls

  • JEFF

    Can i make mine really big?

    • QuantumChef

      If you make them too big the membrane will not be able to hold the liquid. But you can try by keeping them in the bath for a longer time so the membrane is thicker. However, this will probably not result in a good eating experience.

  • JEFF

    If so how big are the balls